Festschrift: Professor Hendrik Johannes Koornhof

Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Keith Paul Klugman


Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the leading vaccine preventable cause of death in children and adults. The management of pneumococcal infections is complicated by the development of resistance to antimicrobials. Risk factors for increased resistance include young age, isolation from the upper respiratory tract, hospitalization, residence in an urban area, attendance of day care, previous exposure to antibiotics, female gender, exposure to specific serotypes and clones, HIV infection and exposure to a class of drug to which resistance can be easily selected from a susceptible population of organisms. Conjugate pneumococcal vaccine affords protection from resistant strains belonging to vaccine serotypes, but resistance is emerging in non – vaccine types.

Author's affiliations

Keith Paul Klugman, Emory University

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Streptococcus pnumoniae; pneumococcus; antibiotic resistance

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2007;97(11):1129.

Article History

Date submitted: 2007-07-09
Date published: 2007-11-23

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