Continuing Medical Education

Important causes of chronic kidney disease in South Africa

M R Moosa, I van der Walt, S Naicker, A M Meyers


In hypertensive patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) the goal is to keep blood pressure (BP) at ≤140/90 mmHg. When CKD is
present, especially where there is proteinuria of ≥0.5 g/day, the goal is a BP of ≤130/80 mmHg. Lifestyle measures are mandatory, especially
limitation of salt intake, ingestion of adequate quantities of potassium, and weight control. Patients with stages 4 - 5 CKD must be carefully
monitored for hyperkalaemia and deteriorating kidney function if angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II
receptor blockers (ARBs) are used, especially in patients >60 years of age with diabetes or atherosclerosis. BP should be regularly monitored
and, where possible, home BP-measuring devices are recommended for optimal control.
Guidelines on the use of antidiabetic agents in CKD are presented, with the warning that metformin is contraindicated in patients with
stages 4 - 5 CKD.
There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, including acute kidney injury, electrolyte and acid-base
disturbances, HIV-associated glomerular disease, acute-on-chronic renal disease and side-effects related to the treatment of HIV.

Authors' affiliations

M R Moosa, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

I van der Walt, Netcare Jakaranda Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa

S Naicker, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

A M Meyers, Donald Gordon Medical Centre, Klerksdorp Hospital, and National Kidney Foundation of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Chronic kidney disease; Causes

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2015;105(4):320. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.9535

Article History

Date submitted: 2015-02-24
Date published: 2015-03-07

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