Research

Otolaryngological, head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at Steve Biko Academic Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa

Mashudu Tshifularo, Lubendran Govender, Glen Monama

Abstract


Background. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HIV infection. According to recent census statistics, 5.6 million people in South Africa (SA) are HIV-positive, the highest number of infected individuals worldwide. Over 80% of HIV-infected individuals will present with ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations. Previous studies show that oral diseases seem to be the most common ENT-related manifestation, reported in about 40 - 50% of HIV-infected patients. In SA, there is lack of local information regarding the otolaryngological and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected individuals.

Objective. To ascertain our local trends of ENT and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at our specialised ENT-HIV Clinic, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, SA.

Methods. A 1-year prospective study involving 153 HIV-infected patients was conducted in the clinic from January to December 2011. Patient history was taken and examinations were performed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS classification system. Data analysis was performed using Epi Info 7 software.

Results. The most common manifestations were adenoid hypertrophy/hyperplasia followed by cervical lymphadenopathy, chronic suppurative otitis media, otitis media with effusion and sensory-neural hearing loss.

Conclusion. Patients typically presented with early manifestations during symptomatic WHO stages I and II in contrast to results reported in similar developing world studies from Iran, Nigeria and India. A possible explanation may lie in the SA government HIV Counselling and Testing campaign and the antiretroviral rollout programme, the effectiveness of which is becoming evident. 


Authors' affiliations

Mashudu Tshifularo, Tertiary referral centre, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Lubendran Govender, Tertiary referral centre, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Glen Monama, Tertiary referral centre, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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Keywords

HIV/AIDS; ENT; head neck; viral infections; clinical manifestation

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2013;103(7):464-466. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.6786

Article History

Date submitted: 2013-02-08
Date published: 2013-05-16

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