South African Hypertension Guideline 2011
Benefits. Benefits of management include reduced risks of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary heart disease.
Recommendations. The correct BP measurement procedure is described, and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. The total cardiovascular disease risk profile should be determined for all patients to inform management strategies. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones in the management of every patient. Major indications, precautions and contra-indications to each recommended antihypertensive drug are listed. Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥20/10 mmHg. First-line drug therapy for uncomplicated hypertension includes low-dose thiazide-like diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) (or ARBs - angiotensin II receptor blockers). If the target BP is not obtained, a second antihypertensive should be added from the aforementioned list. If the target BP is still not met, the third remaining antihypertensive agent should be used. In black patients either thiazide-like diuretics or CCBs can be used initially, because response rates are better than with ACE-Is or β-blockers. In treating resistant hypertension, a centrally acting drug, vasodilator, α-blocker, spironolactone or β-locker should be added. This guideline includes management of specific situations, i.e. hypertensive emergency and urgency, severe hypertension with target organ damage, hypertension in diabetes mellitus, resistant hypertension, fixed drug combinations, new trials in hypertension, and interactions of antihypertensive agents with other drugs.
Validity. The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society.
Y K Seedat, University of KwaZulu-Natal
B L Rayner, Hypertension Clinic, Department of Medicine, UCT
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Date published: 2011-12-14
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