Predictors of unfavourable tuberculosis treatment outcome in Bilene District, Gaza Province, Mozambique: A retrospective analysis, 2016 - 2019

D Osório, I Munyangaju, E Nacarapa, A-V Nhangave, J-M Ramos-Rincon


Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem and remains one of the leading causes of death from an infectious agent globally. Mozambique is one of 30 countries considered to have a high TB burden.

Objectives. To describe the clinical characteristics of TB in children and adults in Bilene District in Gaza Province, Mozambique, over 43 months and to assess determinants of unfavourable treatment outcomes.

Methods. This retrospective cohort study took place from 1 January 2016 to 31 July 2019 in Bilene District, Gaza. We included patients in the TB register at the Centro de Saúde de Macia TB unit with available data on final treatment outcome. Predictors of unfavourable outcomes were determined using multivariable logistic regression models.

Results. A total of 3 012 TB-infected patients were registered in the TB unit of the Macia health facility during the study period: 358 (11.9%) were children (<14 years), 1 522 (50.5%) were male, and 2 581 (85.7%) were new TB cases. No bacteriological test was performed at diagnosis in 1 250 patients (41.5%). Treatment was successful in 2 863 patients (95.1%), with better outcomes in children than in adults (98.0% v. 94.6%; p=0.005). Although mortality (n=97; 3.2%) was low in both groups, the proportion who died was lower in children compared with adults (1.4% v. 3.5%; p=0.035). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that unfavourable outcomes were more likely in men compared with women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 - 2.12; p=0.029), in patients with recurrent TB infection compared with newly infected patients (aOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.05 - 2.50; p=0.027), and in patients co-infected with TB and HIV compared with HIV-negative TB-infected patients (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.43 - 3.29; p<0.001). The factor conferring the most risk for an unfavourable outcome was positive microbiological sputum results (aOR 5.27; 95% CI 3.25 - 8.54; p<0.001).

Conclusions. Factors independently associated with an unfavourable TB treatment outcome were male sex, recurrent TB infection, having positive microbiology, and co-infection with HIV. It remains crucial to improve data quality and adherence to TB screening and diagnostic algorithms.

Authors' affiliations

D Osório, General Medicine/Paediatrics Department, Centro de Saúde de Macia, Gaza, Mozambique

I Munyangaju, Tinpswalo Association – Vincentian Association to Fight AIDS and TB, Gaza, Mozambique

E Nacarapa, Tinpswalo Association – Vincentian Association to Fight AIDS and TB, Gaza, Mozambique; Internal Medicine Department, Carmelo Hospital, Gaza, Mozambique

A-V Nhangave, Gaza Provincial Research Nucleus, Provincial Health Directorate, Mozambique

J-M Ramos-Rincon, Internal Medicine Department, General University Hospital of Alicante and University Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante, Spain

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Tuberculosis; Therapy; Prognostic factors; HIV; Children; Adults; Outcome; Mortality; Mozambique

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2022;112(3):234-239.

Article History

Date submitted: 2022-03-02
Date published: 2022-03-02

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