In Practice

Invasive carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection at a paediatric hospital: A case series

Oliver Ombeva Malande, Annerie du Plessis, Diane Rip, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley

Abstract


Background. There are no paediatric reports of invasive infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from Africa.

Objectives. To document a series of cases of CRE infections at a tertiary children’s hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, describing the clinical and microbiological findings in these children.

Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was completed using data from a series of children with invasive CRE infection between 2010 and 2015, sourced from their clinical notes and microbiology results.

Results. The first of 10 invasive CRE infections during the study period occurred in November 2012. Nine CRE infections were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, and one by both K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The median age was 25 months (interquartile range (IQR) 5 - 60). All 10 CRE infections were hospital acquired. The median length of hospitalisation before CRE infection was 28.5 days (IQR 20 - 44). Eight of the children were exposed to carbapenems during the 12-month period prior to invasive CRE infection. Six were treated with colistin and carbapenem combination therapy, of whom 2 died, including 1 of a non-CRE event. The other 4 children received colistin monotherapy. All these children died, including 2 from non-CRE events.

Conclusions. Children with invasive CRE infection and severe underlying disease must be treated with combination antibiotic therapy. Strict infection control practice and antibiotic stewardship are necessary to contain the spread of CRE and limit the number of new infections.


Authors' affiliations

Oliver Ombeva Malande, Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Annerie du Plessis, Main Pharmacy, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Diane Rip, National Health Laboratory Service, Microbiology Laboratory, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Colleen Bamford, National Health Laboratory Service, Microbioloogy Laboratory, Groote Schuur Hospita;, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Brian Eley, Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

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Keywords

Emergence; CRE; Children; Carbapenem-resistant; Enterobacteriaceae; Africa

Cite this article

South African Medical Journal 2016;106(9):877-882. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i9.11028

Article History

Date submitted: 2016-05-11
Date published: 2016-08-18

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